Best treatment to prevent type 1 & type 2 diabetes symptoms

John Heywood
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Best treatment to prevent type 1 & type 2 diabetes symptoms
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Index:

What is diabetes ?

So, why should you care ?

Main types of diabetes:
Pre-diabetes: could you have it ?

What exactly is pre-diabetes ?

What causes pre-diabetes or insulin-resistance ?

Who is at risk of developing pre-diabetes ?

How is pre-diabetes diagnosed ?

Can pre-diabetes be reversed ?

How do you know you have diabetes ?

Can diabetes be prevented ?

Diabetes FAQ - frequently asked questions

What is called diabetes?
What causes diabetes?
What are the types of diabetes?
How is diabetes managed?
What are the symptoms of diabetes?
How should  i know if i have diabetes?
Can diabetes be cured forever ?
What should my blood sugar level be?
What are the symptoms of low blood sugar?
Can i take both pills and insulin to control my blood sugar?
What are cost insulin pumps?
How can i monitor the development and progression of diabetes complications ?
Top_50_question_about_diabetes that you should know to cure it! 

Healthy lifestyles for diabetes

Treatment of diabetes

Checking your blood glucose level

What if it goes untreated?

How can i prevent hyperglycemia?

Group at risk

Monitor your health

Learn how to live with diabetes

Know what to do every day.

 

What is Diabetes ?

Diabetes (Diabetes Mellitus) is one of the most common chronic conditions in the world and occurs when the body fails to process glucose appropriately. Many South Africans have diabetes but a large number hang about undiagnosed. Type 1 diabetes is a progressive autoimmune disease that is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, while type 2 diabetes is mostly caused by unhealthy lifestyle and usually starts in adulthood. Several women can also develop signs of diabetes while they are pregnant. This is called gestational diabetes. If missing untreated, high blood sugarcan lead to serious problems: seriously damage various organs and raise risk for heart disease. It’s possible to live a healthy life with diabetes, and if you learn to recognise the symptoms of diabetes early, you can receive proper medical care and make healthy lifestyle changes.

Diabetes is a chronic health condition where the body is unable to produce enough insulin and properly break down glucose in blood. Glucose comes from food and is used by the cells for power. Without this energy we can not live

So, why should you care ?

Diabetes affects everyone  not only the patient, but also the families and communities at huge. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to serious complications such heart disease, blindness, amputations, kidney failure, stroke, and death.

The majority of people suffer from type 2 diabetes, a condition which in most cases could be avoided altogether by following a healthy diet and exercising regularly and going for routine blood glucose analysis. Obesity is one of the strongest precursors of type 2 diabetes, therefore keeping your weight in check is crucial. However, some people, also have a strong genetic predisposition to develop diabetes. Knowing the risk factors for diabetes is therefore very important.

The initial symptoms of type 2 diabetes (such as increased thirst and urination, frequent infections, fatigue,and blurred vision) are very mild and develop so gradually that many people often fail to recognise them as warning signs of diabetes.

Take care of your family's health - and yourseft- by getting the facts on diabetes and spreading awareness. Here is what you need to know:

    Glucose and insulin:

Glucose ,a simple sugar, comes from the food we eat, and it's an important energy source. Generally, the hormone insulin produced by the pancreas -an organ closely associated with the digestive system- assists the body in utilising glucose. It helps to move glucose from the blood into the cells and keep blood sugar levels healthy.

In diabetes, however, basing on which type you have, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, or your body can't use the insulin it does make. 

    There are 3 main types of diabetes:
•    Type 1 diabetes usually occurs quite suddenly in children and young people before age30. In this form of the disease, the body does not produce enough insulin. The immune system mistakenly attacks the cells in the pancreas that manufacture this essential hormone. When these cells are destroyed, less and less insulin is produced to process glucose, and blood glucose levels rise. People suffering type 1 diabetes need regular insulin injections.

•    Type 2 diabetes is by the most common, and it is this form of the disease that is growing at such an alarming rate in the modern world. About 85- 90% of people with diabetes have this type. Naturally it develops in people over 35 (usually from 40 onwards) and is more likely in those who are overweight and inactive.  It is largely a disease of lifestyle. And in most cases, the body still produces insulin but the cells can't use it properly. This is known as insulin resistance. 

•    Gestational diabetes occurs in some pregnant women and may cause problems during pregnancy and birth. Both mother and child have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later on.
 

Pre-diabetes: could you have it ?

Worldwide, an alarming number of people are becoming insulin resistant, a condition also known as pre-diabetes, that can eventually lead to type 2 diabetes. However, very few of us are aware that this condition exists, and what serious impact it could have on our health. Unfortunately the majority of people have no idea that they have pre-diabetes as the condition develops gradually and without cautions. Most people with prediabetes don’t have any symptoms, but they are considered to be at high risk for developing heart disease. If you have prediabetes, you’re at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. With pre-diabetes, you are at a 50% higher risk of heart disease and stroke than someone who does not have pre-diabetes.The symptoms of type 2 diabetes ( increased appetite, weight loss, frequent urination, excessive thirstblurred vision and exhaustion) are not necessarily obvious when someone becomes pre-diabetic.

However, recent research has shown that some long-term damage to the body; especially the heart and circulatory system may already be occurring during pre-diabetes.  

What exactly is pre-diabetes ?

Pre-diabetes or insulin-resistance is a condition in which the body produces insulin but does not use it properly. The insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps the body use glucose for energy. The glucose is a form of sugar that is the body’s main source of energy.

The body’s digestive system breaks food down into glucose, which then travels in the bloodstream to cells throughout the body. The glucose in the blood is called blood glucose, also known as blood sugar. When the blood glucose level rises after a meal, the pancreas releases insulin to help cells take in and use the glucose.

As people are insulin resistant; their fat,  muscle, and liver cells do not respond properly to insulin. Accordingly, their bodies need more insulin to help glucose go through cells. The pancreas tries to keep up with this increased demand for insulin by producing more.

Eventually the pancreas fails to keep up with the body’s need for insulin. Overload glucose builds up in the bloodstream, setting the stage for diabetes. Then many people with insulin resistance have high levels of both glucose and insulin circulating in their blood at the same time. 

What causes pre-diabetes or insulin-resistance ?

Scientists have identified specific genes that make people more likely to develop insulin resistance and diabetes. Excess weight and lack of physical activity also contribute to insulin resistance. Many people with insulin -resistance and high blood glucose have other conditions that increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and damage to the heart and blood vessels, also called cardiovascular disease. These conditions include having excess weight around the waist, high blood pressure, and abnormal levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Having some of these problems is called metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome, previously called syndrome X. 

Who is at risk of developing pre-diabetes ?

We recommends testing for pre-diabetes in adults with the following risk factors:

 
•    People in a family history of type 2 diabetes.
•    Women who had gestational diabetes or have had a baby weighing more than 4kg.
•    Women who have polycystic ovary syndrome.
•    People who belong to an ethnic team that is disproportionately affected by diabetes.
•    People who are obese or overweight, especially in the mid-section.
•    People with high triglycerides, high cholesterol, low HDL/LDL ratio.
•    People who are inactive ( not play sports)
•    Older people whose ability to utilise insulin well gets worse as we age

How is pre-diabetes diagnosed ?

Two different tests are used to find out whether you have pre-diabetes.

The first one is the fasting plasma glucose test and the other the oral glucose tolerance analysis. The blood glucose levels revealed in these tests show whether your metabolism is fuctioning normally, or whether you’ve diabetes or pre-diabetes. A person with pre-diabetes has a fasting blood glucose level between 5.5mmol/L and 7.0mmol/L. Anything over this indicates the onset of diabetes. The oral glucose tolerance test measures a person’s blood glucose level after a fast and 2 hours after drinking a glucose-rich beverage. If you are prediabetic, your blood glucose level will be between 8.0 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L. Anything over this indicates the onset of diabetes. 

Can pre-diabetes be reversed ?

The good news is that physical activity and weight loss can help the body respond better to insulin. By losing weight, making have wise food choices, reducing stress and being more physically active, people with insulin -resistance or pre-diabetes may avoid developing type 2 diabetes altogether. Physical activities also helps muscle cells use blood glucose for energy by making the cells more sensitive to insulin

How do you know you have diabetes ?

You may have diabetes or pre-diabetes for years and not know – sometimes there are no obvious symptoms, or they may be faint. This is why it's so important to have your blood glucose tested, so you can know for sure.

These symptoms may indicate diabetes. If you experience any, consult your doctor now:

•    Frequent urination.

•    Increased hunger or thirst.

•    Unexplained weight loss.

•    Blurred vision.

•    Tingling or numbness in hands or feet.

•    Fatigue or lack of energy.

•    Sores and bruises that are slow to heal.

•    Skin problems e.g. rashes.

•    Frequent infection.

 

Can diabetes be prevented ?

Certain types of diabetes are preventable as they are lifestyle related. Type 1 diabetes is not lifestyle related and the cause is not known, thus it is currently not preventable. 

Read More: 

Diabetes FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions 

•    WHAT IS CALLED DIABETES ?
Diabetes is a disease of the pancreas, an organ located behind your stomach. Generally, the pancreas releases a substance called insulin into the blood. The insulin helps the body to use sugars and fats that are broken down from the foods we eat. Once a person has diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin, makes only a little insulin or, makes insulin, but the insulin does not work as it should. Diabetes is a lifelong disease. So people with diabetes must manage their disease to stay healthy. 

•    WHAT CAUSES DIABETES ?
Diabetes is a lifelong disease. People with diabetes must manage their disease to stay healthy: family history of diabetes, being overweight, age (risk of affliction increases with age), taking certain medicines, being pregnant*

*Pregnancy puts extra stress on a woman’s body that causes some women to develop diabetes. The Blood sugar levels often return to normal after childbirth. However, women who get diabetes during pregnancy have an increased chance of developing diabetes later in life. 

•    WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF DIABETES ?
There are main two types of diabetes:
o    Type 1 diabetes: the pancreas makes little or no insulin. Person with type 1 diabetes must take insulin to survive. That type occurs most often in people who are under 30 years old.
o    Type 2 diabetes: Insulin is made but it doesn’t work as it should. 9/ 10 people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. That type occurs most often in people who are over 40 years old and overweight 

•    HOW IS DIABETES MANAGED ?
Diabetes is managed through proper diet, exercise and medication. People with diabetes must use home and office tests to monitor the levels of cholesterol, sugar, and triglycerides (a type of fat) in blood. Step by steps are then taken to keep the levels of these substances as normal as possible.
Type 1 diabetes is controlled with: insulin shots, meal planning, exercise
Type 2 diabetes is controlled with: diet and exercise, medicine taken by the mouth, insulin shots. 

•    WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES ?
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes are often severe and sudden. These symptoms include:
•    Dry mouth.
•    Increased thirst.
•    Weight loss (even though you are eating and feel hungry).
•    A need to urinate often.
•    Weak, tired feeling.
•    Blurred vision.

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes often go ignored. These symptoms build up over time and include:
•    Yeast infections.
•    Itchy skin (usually in the vaginal or groin area).
•    Dry mouth.
•    Blurred vision.
•    Slow healing sores or cuts.
•    Increased thirst. 

•    HOW SHOULD  I KNOW IF I HAVE DIABETES ?
Your health care provider can perform blood and urine tests to see if you have diabetes. Usual blood sugar is between 70.0 mg/dl and 100.0 mg/dl. The regular diagnosis of diabetes is made when two blood tests show that your fasting blood sugar level (blood sugar before you have eaten anything) is 126.0 mg/dl or greater. 


•    CAN DIABETES BE CURED FOREVER ?
No. A cure for diabetes has not yet been found. However, diabetes can be treated and controlled. Most people with diabetes manage their disease and lead normal lives. Without proper care, diabetes can lead to:
o    Heart disease.
o    Kidney disease.
o    High blood pressure.
o    Low blood pressure.
o    Eye damage and blindness.
o    Gum disease.
o    Serious infections in feet, sometimes requiring amputation.
o    Damage to nerves, resulting in pain or loss of sensation.
o    Other complications. 


•    WHAT SHOULD MY BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL BE?
Blood sugar ranges may be different for each person and can change throughout the day. Your health care provider will tell you what range is good news for you. If your blood sugar is less than 70.0 mg/dl or more than 180.0 mg/dl for three days in a row, call your DOCTOR or consult the diabetes directory on our website for specialists. 

•    WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF LOW BLOOD SUGAR?
Most people have symptoms of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) when their blood sugar is less than 60.0 mg/dl. When your blood sugar is low, your body gives out signs that you need food. Rememmber “Different people have different symptoms”. You will learn to know your symptoms.
Common low blood sugar symptoms include the following:
Early symptoms:
o    Feel dizzy.
o    Have a pounding heart.
o    Feel shaky.
o    Tremble.
o    Have pale skin.
o    Feel frightened or anxious.
o    Feel hungry.
o    Sweat.
o    Feel weak.
Late symptoms:
•    Have poor coordination
•    Feel confused
•    Feel a numbness in your mouth and tongue
•    Pass out
•    Be unable keep your mind on one subject
•    Feel cranky
•    Have bad dreams or nightmares
•    Have a headache 


 

•    CAN I TAKE BOTH PILLS AND INSULIN TO CONTROL MY BLOOD SUGAR?
YES, of course. The combination of insulin and an oral medication when taken as directed by your doctor, is extremely safe and effective in controlling blood sugar. The typical combination therapy consists of taking an oral medication during the day and insulin at night. Just the once you begin taking insulin, you will need to monitor your blood sugar more often to reduce the risk of low blood sugar reactions.
Combination therapies are often helpful for people who have type 2 diabetes (adult onset diabetes). And if you have been taking an oral medication, your medical doctor may change your treatment plan to include insulin injections. That change is often made to help people with type 2 diabetes gain better control of their blood sugar. 

•    WHAT ARE INSULIN PUMPS?
Insulin pumps are small computerized devices, base on the size of a beeper, that you wear on your belt or put in your pocket. They’ve a small flexible tube with a fine needle on the end. The needles are inserted under the skin of your abdomen and taped in place. A carefully calculated, steady flow of insulin is released into the handkerchief. Insulin pumps can cost $6,000 to $10,000 for one pump. There are additional costs for necessary supplies to use the pump.

Using a pump requires you to monitor your blood sugar level at least 4 times a day. You program doses and make adjustments to your insulin, depending on your food intake and exercise programs. Some health care providers prefer the insulin pump over injections because its slow release of insulin mimics a working pancreas. It’s important to consult your doctor before purchasing an insulin pump, specially, because of its high initial cost. 

•    HOW CAN I MONITOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF DIABETES COMPLICATIONS ?
Eye disease (retinopathy): All patients with diabetes should see an ophthalmologist yearly for a dilated eye examination. Beginning at diagnosis in people with type 2 diabetes, and after 5 years in people with type 1 diabetes after puberty. The patients with known eye disease, symptoms of blurred vision in one or two eye, or blind spots may need to see their ophthalmologist more regularly
Kidney disease (nephropathy): Urine testing should be performed yearly. Regular blood pressure checks are important. Since control of hypertension (high blood pressure) is essential in slowing kidney disease. In general, blood pressure should be maintained less than 130/80 for adults. Persistent leg or foot swelling may be a symptom of kidney disease and should be reported to your doctor.
Nerve disease (neuropathy): Numbness or tingling in your feet should be reported to your doctor at your regular visits. You’d check your feet daily for calluses, cracks, redness, or skin breakdown. If you notice these symptoms before your scheduled visit, notify your doctor immediately. 

Read More: Top_50_question_about_diabetes that you should know to cure it!  

Healthy Lifestyles

Diabetes is not a disease with a cure as simple as taking prescribed medications for a short period of time. That makes living with diabetes quite challenging at first. Although the good news are that once you are familiar with how to best manage your glucose in a way that works for you, it’ll be like discovering the magic formula that will keep you in control.

Living with diabetes means that you will have to take in consideration the food that you eat, the timing between your mealss, the medication and physical activity. Those factors are important for people with diabetes to help them better control and manage their glucose levels in a safe and comfortable manner.
When it comes to diabetes management, b.lood sugar control is often the central theme. Following all, keeping your blood sugar level within your target range can help you live a long and healthy life. But do you know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall?

The list is sometimes surprising:

Food: Healthy eating is a cornerstone of any diabetes management plan. But it’s not just what you eat that affects your blood sugar level and how much you eat and when you eat matters, too.

What should to do?

Exercise: Physical activity is another important part of your diabetes management program. When you exercise, your muscles use sugar (glucose) for energy. Standard physical activity also improves your body’s response to insulin. Those factors work together to lower your blood sugar level. More strenuous your workout, the longer the effect lasts. But even light activities such as gardening, housework, or being on your feet for extended periods that can lower your blood sugar level.

What  should to do?

Medication:  Insulin and other diabetes medications are designed to lower your blood sugar level when diet and exercise alone are not sufficient for managing diabetes. But the effectiveness of these medications depends on the timing and size of the dose. And any medications you take for conditions other than diabetes can affect your blood sugar level, too.

What should to do? 

Treatment of diabetes

Treatment of diabetes is unique to every individual. Though very common, individuals with diabetes have very different physiological and psychological needs, and hence all treatment plans are also different. It’s important once you are diagnosed with diabetes to seek medical advice and to increase your knowledge about the different symptoms (for type 1 and type 2), causes and complications of diabetes.

Diabetes is a common disease, yet every individual needs unique care. We need to encourage people with diabetes and their families to learn as much as possible about the latest medical therapies and approaches, as well as healthy lifestyle choices. High-quality communication with a team of experts can help you feel in control and respond to changing needs. 

Read more: CHECKING YOUR BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL  

HYPOGLYCEMIA (LOW BLOOD GLUCOSE)

Hypoglycemia is a condition characterized by abnormally low blood glucose (blood sugar) levels, usually less than 70.0mg/dl. However, it’s important to talk to your health care provider about your individual blood glucose targets, and what level is too low for you.
Hypoglycemia may also be referred to as an insulin reaction, or insulin shock.
Hypoglycemic symptoms are important clues that you have low blood glucose. Each person’s reaction to hypoglycemia is different, so it’s important that you learn your own signs and symptoms when your blood glucose is low. The only sure way to know whether you are experiencing hypoglycemia is to check your blood glucose, if possible. If you’re experiencing symptoms and you are unable to check your blood glucose for any reason, treat the danger hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia has the potential to cause injuries, coma, accidents, and death.
Signs and Symptoms of Hypoglycemia (happen quickly):
•         Rapid/fast heartbeat.
•         Headaches.
•         Unconsciousness.
•         Lightheadedness or dizziness.
•         Nervousness or anxiety.
•         Blurred/impaired vision.
•         Confusion, including delirium.
•         Sleepiness.
•         Seizures.
•         Sweating, chills and clamminess.
•         Anger, stubbornness, or sadness.
•         Nightmares or crying out during sleep.
•         Weakness or fatigue.
•         Tingling or numbness in the lips or tongue.
•         Irritability or impatience.
•         Shakiness.
•         Lack of coordination.
•         Hunger and nausea.
Treatment
1.    Consume 15-20 grams of glucose or simple carbohydrates.
2.    Recheck your blood glucose after 15 minutes.
3.    If hypoglycemia continues, repeat
4.    Once blood glucose returns to normal, eat a small snack if your next planned meal or snack is more than an hour or two away

15 grams of simple carbohydrates commonly used:
•    glucose tablets (follow package instructions).
•    gel tube (follow package instructions).
•    2 tablespoons of raisins..
•    ~100ml of juice or regular soda (not diet).
•    1 tablespoon sugar, honey, or corn syrup.
•    8 ounces of milk.
•    jellybeans, hard candies, or gumdrops.

Glucagon  is a hormone that stimulates your liver to release stored glucose into your bloodstream when your blood glucose levels are too low down. Injectable glucagon kits are used as a medication to treat someone with diabetes that has become unconscious from a severe insulin feedback. Glucagon kits are available by prescription. Talk with your health care provider about whether you should buy one, and how and when to use it.

Hypoglycemia Unawareness:

Very often, hypoglycemia symptoms occur when blood glucose levels fall below 70.0mg/dl. But, many people have blood glucose readings below this level and feel no symptoms. That is called hypoglycemia unawareness. People with hypoglycemia unawareness are also less likely to be awakened from sleep when hypoglycemia occurs at night.
Hypoglycemia unawareness occurs more frequently in those who:
•    frequently have low blood glucose episodes (which can cause you to stop sensing the early warning signs of hypoglycemia).
•    have had diabetes for a long time.
•    tightly control their diabetes (which increases your chances of having low blood glucose reactions).
If you think you have hypoglycemia unawareness, speak with your health care provider. Your health care provider may alter/raise your blood glucose targets to avoid further hypoglycemia and risk of future episodes.

HYPERGLYCEMIA (HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE)

Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can’t use insulin properly.

What Causes Hyperglycemia?

A number of things can cause hyperglycemia:
•    If you have type I, you may not have given yourself enough insulin.
•    If you have type II, your body may have enough insulin, but it’s not as effective as it should be
•    You ate more than planned, or exercised less than planned
•    You have stress from an illness, such as a cold,flu…
•    You have other stress, such as family conflicts or school or dating problems….

What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia?

The signs and symptoms include the following:
•    High blood glucose.
•    High levels of sugar in the urine.
•    Frequent urination.
•    Increased thirst.

Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. Request your doctor how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Verifying your blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia.

Treatment
You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is above 240.0mg/dl, check your urine for ketones. Exercising when ketones are present may make your blood glucose level go even higher. You’ll need to work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level.
Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietician (refer to the Directory for a list of nutritionists and dieticians) to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes in your diet do not work, your doctor may change the amount of your medication or insulin or possibly the timing of when you take it. 

What if it Goes Untreated?

Hyperglycemia can be a serious problem if you don’t treat it, so it’s important to treat as soon as you detect it. And if you fail to treat hyperglycemia, a condition called ketoacidosis (diabetic coma) could occur. The ketoacidosis develops when your body doesn’t have enough insulin. Without enough insulin, your body can’t use glucose for fuel so your body breaks down fats to use for energy.
When your body breaks down fats, waste products called ketones are produced. So your body can not tolerate large amounts of ketones and will try to get rid of them through the urine. Unfortunately, the body can not release all the ketones and they build up in your blood, which may lead to ketoacidosis.
Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include:
•    Shortness of breath.
•    Breath that smells fruity.
•    Nausea and vomiting.
•    Very dry mouth. 
 

How Can I Prevent Hyperglycemia?

Your best bet is to practice good diabetes management and learn to detect hyperglycemia so you can treat it early, before it gets worse more than what you can image. 

Group at Risk

There are three major types of diabetes: type I diabetes, type II diabetes, and gestational diabetes. All 3 types of diabetes share the same basic characteristic , the body’s inability either to make or to use enough insulin. Your body needs enough insulin, a hormone, to be able to use glucose  which comes from the food you eat, for power. Without enough insulin, glucose stays in the blood, creating high levels of blood sugar. Over time, this buildup causes damage to your nerves, eyes, kidneys, heart, and other organs.
One out of every three people with diabetes is unaware they have this chronic conditions. Might you be one of them? Read on to see what your risk for diabetes really is. 

Risk Factors for Type 1 Diabetes:

With type I diabetes, which starts in childhood, the pancreas stops producing insulin. Insulin is a hormone your body needs to be able to use the energy , glucose ,found in food. The primary risk factor for type I diabetes is a family history of this lifelong, chronic disease.
•    Genetics and family history: Having family members with diabetes is a major risk factor. The American Diabetes Association recommends that anyone with a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes ,a mother, father, brother or,sister, should get screened for diabetes. A simple blood test can diagnose type I diabetes.
•    Diseases of the pancreas: Injury or diseases of the pancreas can inhibit its ability to produce insulin and lead to type I diabetes.
•    Infection or illness: A range of relatively rare infections and illnesses can damage the pancreas and cause type I diabetes. 

Risk Factors for Type II Diabetes:

Type II diabetes occurs when the body can not use the insulin that’s produced, a condition called insulin resistance. Though it typically starts in adulthood, type II diabetes can begin anytime in life. Because of the current epidemic of obesity among children, type II diabetes is increasingly found in teenagers.

Here are the risk factors for developing type II diabetes.
•    Obesity or being overweight: Diabetes has long been linked to obesity and being overweight. Follow a line of investigation at the Harvard School of Public Health showed that the single best predictor of type 2 diabetes is being obese or overweight.

Obesity and diabetes are both epidemic in the U.S. The most-used measure for obesity is BMI, that stands for body mass index. A BMI is a ratio, and can be determined using standard tables of height and weight. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight. A BMI of 30 or higher defines obesity. 
Here are several examples of how BMI is used:
•    A woman who’s 5’5 ‘’ tall and weighs 120.0 pounds has a BMI of 20.
•    A woman who’s 5’5’’ and weighs 180.0 pounds has a BMI of 30. She’d be diagnosed as “obese.”
•    A woman who’s 5’5” tall and weighs 240.0 pounds has a BMI of 40. She’d be diagnosed with “extreme obesity” or as having “clinically severe obesity.”

Other risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes include:
•    Impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: Prediabetes is a milder form of diabetes that’s sometimes called impaired glucose tolerance. It may be diagnosed with a simple blood tests. Prediabetes is a major risk factor for developing type II diabetes. The CDC estimates that as many as 79 million children and adults in the U.S. have prediabetes.
•    Insulin resistance: Type II diabetes often starts with cells that are resistant to insulin. It means they are unable to take in insulin as it moves glucose from the blood into cells. With insulin resistance, the pancreas has to work overly hard to produce enough insulin so cells can get the energy they need for your body. This involves a complex process that eventually leads to type II diabetes.
•    Ethnic background: Diabetes occurs more often in Hispanic (Latino Americans), Pacific Islanders, African-Americans, Asian-Americans, Native Americans, and Alaska natives. Note that this relates to American ethnic backgrounds, but that doesn’t make the risk factor any less applicable for Arab ethnicities.
•    High blood pressure: Hypertension or high blood pressure is a major risk factor for diabetes. High blood pressure is generally defined as 140/90mm Hg or higher. Low levels of HDL(“good”) cholesterol and high triglyceride levels also put you at risk.
•    History of gestational diabetes: If you developed diabetes while you were pregnant, you’ve had what is called as gestational diabetes. Having had gestational diabetes puts you at higher risk of developing type II diabetes later in life.
•    Sedentary lifestyle: Being inactive , exercising fewer than three times a week, makes you more likely to develop diabetes.
•    Family history: Having a family history of diabetes , a parent or sibling who’s been diagnosed with this condition , increases your risk of developing type II diabetes.
•    Polycystic ovary syndrome: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at higher risk of type II diabetes. Some doctors advise anyone over age 45 to be screened for diabetes. That’s because increasing age puts you at higher risk of developing type II diabetes. It is important to remember, though that people at any age can develop diabetes. If you are over 45 and overweight or if you have symptoms of diabetes, talk to your doctor about a simple screening test. 

Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes:

Diabetes triggered by pregnancy is called gestational diabetes mellitus or GDM, and it also affects about 4% of all U.S. pregnancies. It is caused by hormones that are produced by the placenta during pregnancy or by too little insulin. The high blood sugar from the mother crosses the placenta, causing high blood sugar in the baby. That can lead to growth and development problems if left untreated. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include the following:
•    Obesity or being overweight: Being obese or overweight puts women at risk of gestational diabetes.
•    Previous glucose intolerance: A history of glucose intolerance or previous gestational diabetes increases the risk of gestational diabetes in a current pregnancy.
•    Family history: A family history of diabetes , a parent or sibling who’s been diagnosed with diabetes,  enlarges the risk of gestational diabetes.
•    The older a woman is when she becomes pregnant, the higher her risk of gestational diabetes.

Whatever your risk factors for diabetes may be, there’s a lot you can do to delay or prevent diabetes. To handle your risk of diabetes, you should:
•    Manage your blood pressure.
•    Keep your weight within or near normal range.
•    Get moderate exercise on most days.
•    Eat a balanced diet. 

Monitor your Health

HOW TO CHECK AND TARGET RANGE FOR BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS?

TESTS FOR KETONES

You may need to check your blood or urine for ketones if you’re sick or if your blood glucose levels are above 240. Your body makes ketones when you burn fat instead of glucose for energy. If you have too many ketones, you are more likely to have a serious condition called ketoacidosis. If not treated, ketoacidosis can cause death. Signs of ketoacidosis are:


•    Vomiting.
•    Weakness.
•    Fast breathing.
•    Sweet-smelling breath.
Ketoacidosis is more likely in people with type 1 diabetes. Your doctor or diabetes educator will show you how to test for ketones.

KEEP DAILY RECORDS

•    the times of day you take insulin.
•    your blood glucose levels.
•    when you are sick.
•    the times of day you take your medicines.
•    when and what you eat.
•    whether you have ketones in your blood or urine.
•    what types of physical activity you do and for how long.
•    the amount and type of insulin you take.
•    what types of physical activity you do and for how long.
•    your blood glucose levels. 

LEARN HOW TO LIVE WITH DIABETES

COPE WITH YOUR DIABETES.
•    Stress can raise your blood sugar. Learn ways to lower your stress. Try taking a walk, meditating, working on your hobby, deep breathing, gardening, or listening to your favorite music.
•    Ask for help if you feel down. A support group, member of the clergy, mental health counselor, friend, or family member who will listen to your concerns may help you feel better.

EAT WELL
•    Drink water instead of juice and regular soda.
•    Choose foods that are lower in calories, trans fat, sugar, saturated fat, and salt
•    Make a diabetes meal plan with help from your health care team
•    Eat foods with more fiber, such as breads, crackers, rice,whole grain cereals, or pasta.
•    Choose foods such as whole grains, bread and cereals, fruits, vegetables, and low-fat or skim milk and cheese.
•    When eating a meal, fill half of your plate with fruits and vegetables, one quarter with a lean protein, such as beans, or turkey without the skin and one quarter with a whole grain, such as brown rice or whole wheat pasta.

Be active.
•    Keep track of your blood sugar. You might want to check it one or more times a day. Use the card at the back of this booklet to keep a record of your blood sugar numbers. Be sure to talk about it with your health care team.
•    Report any changes in your health.
•    Take your medicines for diabetes and any other health problems even when you feel good. Request your doctor if you need aspirin to prevent a heart attack or stroke. Say to your doctor if you cannot afford your medicines or if you have any side effects.
•    Brush your teeth and floss every day to keep your teeth, mouth, and gums healthy.
•    Stay at a healthy weight by using your meal plan and moving more.
•    Ask your doctor if you have any questions about your diabetes.
•    Twice a week, work to increase your muscle strength. Utilize stretch bands, do yoga, heavy gardening, or try push-ups.
•    Check your feet every day for red spots,cuts, swelling, and blisters. Call your health care team right away about any sores that do not go away.
•    Set a goal to be more active most days of the week. Start slow by taking 10 minute walks and  3 times a day.
•    Check your blood pressure if your doctor advises and keep a record of it.
•    Stop smoking. Ask for help to quit. 

KNOW WHAT TO DO EVERY DAY.

•    Brush your teeth and floss every day to keep your teeth, mouth, and gums healthy.
•    Check your feet every day for cuts red spots, and swelling, blisters,. Call your health care team right away about any sores that do not go away.
•    Stop smoking and ask for help to quit.
•    Check your blood pressure if your doctor advises and keep a record of it.
•    Keep track of your blood sugar. You may want to check it one or more times a day. Use the card at the back of this booklet to keep a record of your blood sugar numbers. Be sure to talk about it with your health care team.
•    Take your medicines for diabetes and any other health problems even when you feel good. Ask your doctor if you need aspirin to prevent a heart attack or sudden stroke. Tell your doctor if you can not afford your medicines or if you have any side effects.

TALK TO YOUR HEALTH CARE TEAM.
•    Report any changes in your health.
•    Ask your doctor if you have any questions about your diabetes
ACTION YOU CAN TAKE
•    Ask how and when to test your blood sugar and how to use the results to manage your diabetes.
•    Ask about ways to be more active.
•    Discuss how your diabetes plan is working for you each time you visit your health care team.
•    Use these tips to help with your self-care.
•    Ask for a healthy meal plan.

   

 

 

       

 
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